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Beijing is a huge city with several district articles containing sightseeing, restaurant, nightlife and accommodation listings. Beijing is the capital of the most populous country in the world, the People's Republic of China, and also its second largest city after Shanghai. It was also the seat of the Ming and Qing dynasty emperors until the formation of a republic in 1911. Beijing is the political, educational and cultural centre of the country and as such it is rich in historical sites and important government and cultural institutions. The city is well known for its flatness and regular construction. There are only three hills to be found in the city limits (in Jingshan Park to the north of the famous Forbidden City). Like the configuration of the Forbidden City, Beijing has concentric "ring roads", which are actually rectangular, that go around the metropolis.
Great Wall of China

Great Wall of China
The Great Wall of China can be visited at many places along its length of several thousand kilometers. Its condition ranges from excellent to ruined and access from straightforward to quite difficult.

The Great Wall stretches from Shanhaiguan in the east, to Lop Nur in the west, along an arc that roughly delineates the southern edge of Inner Mongolia. The most comprehensive archaeological survey, using advanced technologies, has recently concluded that the entire Great Wall, with all of its branches, stretches for 8,851.8 km (5,500.3 mi). This is made up of 6,259.6 km (3,889.5 mi) sections of actual wall, 359.7 km (223.5 mi) of trenches and 2,232.5 km (1,387.2 mi) of natural defensive barriers such as hills and rivers
Ming Dynasty Tombs

Ming Dynasty Tombs
Ming Dynasty Tombs are located some 50 kilometers due north of urban Beijing at a specially selected site. The site was chosen by the third Ming Dynasty emperor Yongle (1402–1424), who moved the capital of China from Nanjing to the present location of Beijing. He is credited with envisioning the layout of the ancient city of Beijing as well as a number of landmarks and monuments located therein. After the construction of the Imperial Palace (the Forbidden City) in 1420, the Yongle Emperor selected his burial site and created his own mausoleum. The Ming tombs of the 13 emperors of the Ming Dynasty were located on the southern slope of Tianshou Mountain (originally Mount Huangtu).
Beijing National Statium

Beijing National Statium ( Bird's Nest)
The National Stadium in Beijing, the main stadium for the 2008 Olympic Games, is dubbed the "bird's nest" because of its innovative grid formation. The twig-like structural elements and the bowl-shaped roof are the masterpiece of the project, yet they pose great challenges to technicians and workers who need to make the building stand on its own feet.

Three years and eight months have passed since earthworks started in December 2003, and now the constructors are making decisive efforts to let the "bird's nest" support its own weight without relying on any of the supporting structures.

The large steel skeleton of the project weighs 42,000 tons, with the roof and the hanging parts around it accounting for 11,200 tons. To bear such a heavy load, 78 supporting structures were temporarily installed and distributed in different points under stress, i.e. 24 supporting structures along the outer circle, 24 in the middle circle and 30 in the inner circle. The current task is to discharge all these supporting objects from a weight of 11,200 tons.

Through accurate calculation and careful argumentation, experts came to understand that the unloading process of the supporting frameworks should be divided into seven steps and each step should abide by the sequence of outer circle, middle circle, inner circle, middle circle and inner circle. In other words, 35 mini-steps are needed to complete the whole process.

To unload a supporting structure, or to load the in-situ steel skeleton, a lifting jack is used. Jacking pads with a height of 100mm to 200mm are placed on the top of the supporting structures. When the lifting jack rises, it replaces the structure to bear the load of the steel skeleton, and a jacking pad is removed. Then the jack descends slowly to give the remaining load again to the column, thus repeating a total of 35 times until the steel skeleton is able to bear its own weight. Accuracy is required during the process. The maximum descent of the outer circle is limited to 68-286mm, the middle circle 161-178mm and inner circle 208-286mm. If the descent of the steel structure, which relies on its own supporting capability, exceeds the extent, or cracks appear somewhere in the skeleton, then problems might exist in the design, manufacturing or construction stages in the past three years. In a word, the unloading process is a proof of "the bird's nest" quality.
Map of Great Wall of China


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